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". . . What makes this resource unique and exemplary is the way the ideas are built on top of one another, enabling readers to understand the concepts so they can think rationally and logically on their own about any topic."

Mary E. Passantino
Christian Research Journal


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Unshakable Foundations
By Dr. Norman Geisler and Peter Bocchino


Unshakable Foundations Cover

Written by Dr. Norman Geisler and Peter Bocchino, Unshakable Foundations is the culmination of more than thirty years of experience teaching apologetics.

The information has been refined and sorted to present the truths most critical for today’s readers.

With clear and direct evidence, the authors help construct a foundation on which readers may stand firm in this changing world.

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A Teacher Resource CD is also available that includes slides, notes, exercises, etc. Learn more ...

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PDFBook Introduction (PDF, 320K)

PDFChapter Descriptions & Flow of Thought (PDF, 374K)

PDFReview from Marquette University (PDF, 1.2 MB)

PDFReview from Christian Research Journal (PDF, 3 MB)

Table of Contents

Chapter One: Questions about Logic

What are first principles?
Why begin with logic?
What is the first principle of logic?
Is the law of noncontradiction unavoidable?
What if all is nothing but an illusion?
What if logic doesn’t apply to reality?
What about the use of Eastern logic?
Can the laws of logic be used as a test for truth?

Chapter Two: Questions about Truth

What is truth?
Is all truth relative?
Is absolute truth intolerant?
What is pluralism?
Should pluralism be tolerated in academics?
Agnosticism: What is that?
Do relativism and pluralism make sense?
Are agnosticism, relativism and pluralism true?
Is it credible to believe in absolute truth?
How can we know the truth about reality?

Chapter Three: Questions about Worldviews

What is a worldview?
Why are worldviews important?
How many worldviews are there?
How do worldviews differ?
What do atheists believe?
What do pantheists believe?
What do theists believe?
What is worldview confusion?
Why are questions so important?
How can we handle worldview questions?
How can we ask the right kind of questions?

Chapter Four: Questions about Science

Is science a matter of faith?
What is the principle of causality?
Is the causality principle reliable?
Does quantum physics disprove causality?
Does causality apply to God?
Is God a self-caused Being?
Can science determine past causes?
Can origin science affirm the existence of God?
Does appealing to a Creator nullify the scientific method?

Chapter Five: Questions about Cosmology

Does the cosmos need a cause?
What is the foremost law of science?
Is the cosmos running out of usable energy?
Can scientists evade the second law of thermodynamics?
What evidence supports the belief in a finite universe?
Which origin model best fits the cosmological evidence?
Why did this superforce bring the cosmos into existence?
Why couldn’t the cosmos be oscillating or pulsating?
Why couldn’t the cosmos be infinite (steady state?
What about quantum cosmology and Stephen Hawking’s model?

Chapter Six: Questions about the Origin-of-Life

Which came first, mind or matter?
What are the two competing origin-of-life models?
Did Darwin understand the complex nature of a cell?
How complex is a single cell and how does it work?
What kind of coded information does a cell utilize?
How does the DNA molecular system work?
What kind of information is stored in the DNA molecule?
When does non-living matter become a living organism?
What kind of cause produces highly specified complexity?
Why can’t the forces of nature account for the origin of life?
How does information theory confirm an intelligent cause?
What kind of intelligent cause designed the genetic text?
What else can we know about this super-intelligent Being?
Which worldview is true (best corresponds to reality)?

Chapter Seven: Questions about Macroevolution

What is macroevolution?
Are there variations of macroevolution?
What is the design model?
Are there variations of the design model?
How should origin models be evaluated?
Doesn’t natural selection support macroevolution?
What about the fruit fly experiments?
What about the use of computer models and analogies?
What about the fossil evidence in the paleontological record?
Isn’t the fossil record complete except for a few missing links?
What is the “Punctuated Equilibria” model and is it valid?

Chapter Eight: Questions about Intelligent Design

What about the theistic macroevolutionary model of origins?
Which design model best matches all of the scientific evidence?
Why does the progressive view best fit all the evidence?
How does the progressive view best fit all the evidence?
Does the biblical age of humanity conflict with modern science?

Chapter Nine: Questions about Law

What is law?
What caused the rise of positive law theory?
Does positive law jeopardize criminal justice?
How can lawmakers pass good laws?
How does positive law theory threaten basic human rights?
How does education influence law and human rights?

Chapter Ten: Questions about Justice

Is it wrong to pass laws that deny basic human rights?
Do governments create human rights or discover them?
Are the concepts of legal theory and morality related?
Which worldview is true (best corresponds to reality)?

Chapter Eleven: Questions about God and Evil

Why evil?
Where is God?
Who can answer?
What is evil?
Did God create evil?
Why doesn’t God stop evil?
What is the purpose of evil and suffering?
Why is there so much evil and suffering?
What about floods, tornadoes, cancer, aids, etc.?
Can God be Sovereign and still allow for human freedom?

Chapter Twelve: Questions about History and Jesus

What is history?
Are miracles possible?
How can we test the reliability of ancient documents?
Does the New Testament pass the bibliographical test?
Does the New Testament pass the internal test?
Does the New Testament pass the external test?
Are the New Testament authors reliable eyewitnesses?
What can we conclude about the New Testament documents?

Chapter Thirteen: Questions about the Deity of Jesus Christ

Who is Jesus Christ?
Who did Jesus Christ claim to be?
What did the Apostles say about Jesus?
What about you, who do you say Jesus is?
How can Jesus Christ be both God and man?
Is there any way to illustrate this divine mystery?
How did Jesus Christ substantiate his claim to be God?

Chapter Fourteen: Questions about Ethics and Morals

What are ethics and morals?
Do absolute moral laws exist?
Isn’t ethics just human instincts?
Isn’t ethics just a matter of feelings?
What is Jesus’ first principle of ethics?
What did Jesus say about moral goodness?
What were Jesus’ observations about human nature?
What was Jesus’ diagnosis about the condition of humanity?
What was Jesus’ prognosis of and prescription for humanity?

Chapter Fifteen: Questions about True Meaning and Heaven

What gives ultimate meaning to life?
Why can’t true meaning be found apart from God?
Why can’t true happiness be found in this world alone?
What does the future hold for someone who accepts Jesus?
What are the temporal consequences of refusing God?

Chapter Sixteen: Questions about True Misery and Hell

What are the permanent consequences of refusing God?
Why do “decent” people go to hell?
Why does anyone go to hell?


First Principle Responses To Ethical Questions

What about abortion?
What about euthanasia?
What about biomedical issues?
What about human cloning?